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    Prevention Guidelines

    Prevention Guidelines for Children from Birth to Age 2

    Screening tests and vaccines are an important part of managing your child’s health. Below are guidelines for these, for children from birth to age 2. You and your child’s healthcare provider may decide that a different schedule is best for your child. But this plan can guide your discussion. Talk with your child’s healthcare provider to make sure your child is up to date on what they need.


    Who needs it

    How often

    Apgar score. These are measurements done soon after birth. They include heart rate, breathing, skin color, muscle tone, and reflex responses. This score is used to check a newborn's general health at birth.

    All newborns

    1 and 5 minutes after birth

    High lead level

    All children in this age group

    Risk assessment of lead exposure at 6, 9, and 18 months. Risk assessment or blood test at 12 and 24 months. Children considered to be at risk may need more testing from age 18 months to 6 years.

    Newborn screenings. This is a series of tests for metabolic, endocrine, hemoglobin, and other conditions. The tests may vary by state. Tests check for hearing loss, congenital hypothyroidism, phenylketonuria, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, severe heart problems, and severe immunodeficiency.

    All newborns. Ask your child's healthcare provider about the tests in your state.

    Before leaving the hospital

    Tooth decay

    Children ages 6 months and older

    Dental exams every 6 months. Fluoride supplements from age 6 months to 16 years for those with low fluoride levels in their water. Fluoride varnish should be applied every 3 to 6 months.


    Who needs it

    How often

    Hepatitis B vaccine

    All infants

    At birth, between ages 1 to 2 months and a final dose between ages 6 to 18 months

    DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis)

    All infants

    At ages 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, between ages 15 to 18 months and a booster between ages 4 to 6 years 

    Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate

    All infants

    Two-dose series: at ages 2 and 4 months; booster dose between 12 to 15 months

    Three-dose series: at ages 2, 4, and 6 months; booster dose between ages 12 to 15 months

    Inactivated poliovirus

    All infants

    At ages 2 months, 4 months, 6 to 18 months (and a booster at 4 to 6 years)

    Pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13)

    All infants

    At ages 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, and at 12 to 15 months

    Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR)

    All infants

    First dose between ages 12 to 15 months (and the second dose between 4 to 6 years, or before starting kindergarten)

    Chickenpox (varicella)

    Those infants who have not contracted chickenpox

    Between ages 12 to15 months and the second dose between 4 to 6 years

    Flu (seasonal); trivalent inactivated influenza

    All infants

    At age 6 months, and then yearly when the flu vaccine is available. The first year your child gets this vaccine, 2 doses are required.

    Hepatitis A

    All infants

    Between ages 12 to 23 months, with a second dose at least 6 months after the first dose


    All infants

    Two-dose series: at ages 2 months and 4 months

    Three-dose series: at ages 2, 4, and 6

    *Screening guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics

    **Immunization schedule from the CDC

    Online Medical Reviewer: Liora C Adler MD
    Online Medical Reviewer: Marianne Fraser MSN RN
    Online Medical Reviewer: Raymond Kent Turley BSN MSN RN
    Date Last Reviewed: 2/1/2023
    © 2000-2024 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional's instructions.
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    Southern New Mexico
    Surgery Center

    2301 Indian Wells Rd. Suite B
    Alamogordo, NM 88310

    Phone: 575.437.0890
    Fax: 575.437.0905